From: Davis (1999). Permission has been granted by the author.
G. plicatus subsp. plicatus G. byzantinus M. Bieb. subsp. brauneri N. Zeybek; G. byzantinus M. Bieb. subsp. saueri N. Zeybek; G. byzantinus M. Bieb. subsp. tughrulii N. Zeybek; G. plicatus M. Bieb. subsp. karamanoghluensis N. Zeybek; G. plicatus M. Bieb. subsp. vardarii N. Zeybek.
INNER PERIANTH segments with one green mark at the apex of each segment, apical only, the mark ± V- to U-shaped or larger and covering half to two thirds of the segment.
Flowers between February and April in nature; December and March in cultivation.
Notes: The natural range of G. plicatus subsp. plicatus is southern Russia, the Crimea, Romania, and northern Turkey, although it has not been recorded from the part of Turkey that lies in Europe. Both subsp. plicatus and subsp. byzantinus occur in Turkey, and there has been some confusion between these subspecies. Recently, G. plicatus has been recorded in southern Russia in the district of Novorossiyrsk, just east of the Crimea (Zernov 2000: 33). Plants with one mark at the apex of the inner perianth segment are subsp. plicatus; and those with two marks, one at the apex and one at the base, are subsp. byzantinus. Some plants of subsp. plicatus (such as those from Lake Abant, in the province of Bolu) may have a very large single mark, but they never have two separate marks as in subsp. byzantinus. The green mark of G. plicatus subsp. plicatus is very variable and can vary from being V- to U-shaped, to more or less X-shaped, or it can cover almost the entire surface of the segment.